History of table tennis

Birthplace of games using rackets, figures, balls held in the special court is East Asia. In China, on the walls of the summer residence of the emperors, in the Summer Palace, you can see a picture showing that in the Middle Ages there were playing a game resembling table tennis. Japanese researchers sport argue that at the same times in Japan there was a popular game that can be considered a primitive form of table tennis.


The great development of the game with the ball got in the Renaissance in the the towns and villages of Europe, especially in Italy. There, in Italy, was born prototype of the modern tennis. This game quickly became popular in France and England. First, the ball is thrown over the net with his hand, and then to cushion put on the gloves, which soon began in the sew wooden plate to cushion the blow. They were replaced by rackets made of wood, which soon began to strap a parchment. And only in the XVI century on the racket strings there. Began about the same "evolution" of rackets for table tennis, however, it happened much later. And in modern France and still in many villages are playing a game similar to tennis rackets, which stretched parchment paper.


For a long time tennis has two varieties: one game was played outdoors, the other - indoors, in a specially arranged for this purpose halls. In England, the most developed lawn tennis, that is in the nature of tennis on grass pitches. This kind of game rapidly became popular in Europe, including in Russia. And to replace the game came in the premises of table tennis that developed in England in the late XIX century. First ball served as a cork from a champagne, then a rubber ball. Rackets were made of wood, covered with parchment, with a long handle, often inlaid with gold, ivory, precious woods. The new game was popular in aristocratic circles, among the fans of the game of cricket. Cricket previously considered child's play, as it is not built on a physical confrontation and does not require much effort. Play it could be in the the finest clothes, but it meets the needs of the move and entertainment. These same advantages possessed and table tennis, so he gained access to the noble gentlemen's clubs.


The turning point in the history of the game, according to the first president of the International Table Tennis Federation Ivor Montagu, was the use of celluloid balls, which in the the 90s of the last century Englishman D. Gibbs brought from America to play in the family. His friend, sporting goods merchant Jacques, acquired the patent and began to produce tables, rackets, balls. In England there was "ping-pong fever" (a play called "ping-pong", probably because of the characteristic sound of the ball hitting the paddle and table). This game quickly spread to Europe and then around the world, becoming a popular form of entertainment in cafes and restaurants.


"Ping pong fever" swept and Russia. This was evidenced by a picture in one of the rooms of the St. Petersburg magazine "Niva", which was released at the beginning of the XX century. It shows people playing ping-pong in a large residential building - in each of his room in the back rooms and even in the attic and basement. While in Russia have been created in the likeness of amateur clubs of English, in which Russian aristocrats indulged in this sports entertainment. Big fan of ping-pong table was, for example, Leo Tolstoy.


Gradually, defines the rules of the game. First was carried through to 30, 50 or 100 points. Counting system was unified in 1926. Since that time, the party continues until 21 points. Initially, the table tennis filing was made, as in the large, over his head. Now adopted a method innings, when the ball is directed primarily at the supply side, first found in Hungary, where at that time were very strong players, among which the most legendary Viktor Varna - record for most world title.


The great popularity of this game has led to the need to create the International Table Tennis Federation, which was done in 1926. In the same year have been held and the World Championships. Their organizers are faced with the problem of the duration of the meetings, as they could go in the amount of 20 hours. Ten years later, the International Federation has reduced the time a party of up to 20 minutes. According to current rules of the meeting may last no longer than 15 minutes, and then introduced the rule of "13 strokes." The essence of it is this: if the receiving 13 times correctly returns the ball to the enemy, to submit loses the point. Priority feed changes after drawing each point.


The biggest influence on the development of table tennis has had and still continuous improvement material rackets. Hungarian researcher tennis Dr. L. Orman in this process identifies four periods:


The period of formation - rackets were made of wood and parchment skin-tight, sometimes with the use of cork and other linings;


Classic - racquets of used in the the lining of hard rubber;


Transient (short) - a tough rubber was replaced by soft spongy;


Modern - rackets are made with double-layer overlays of the "sandwich".


Classical period as L. Orman says, began with a legendary event: "In the early 900s, in the era of rackets, covered with parchment or a cork grip, English athlete Hood on the eve of a competition went to the pharmacy to buy the powder from a headache . Delivery due to him put on a sheet of rubber pupyrchatoy (such sheets used in pharmacies already ten years). Driven by instant illumination, Hood bought rubber, stuck it on his racket, and the next day with a great advantage won an appointment. "However racket with rubber lining then spread has not received. To do this, it would take several years.


In a short time, the nature of the game has changed, become more athletic, more diverse in technique. From entertaining game turned into a sport, and it was finally established the name "ping-pong".


The use of foam rubber pads will greatly increase the strength of the rotation of the ball, but at the same time and slows down the game, making it monotonous. The most advanced coatings were invented by the Japanese. They consist of two layers - the top of the rubber (bumps up or down) and the intermediate - sponge rubber. This racket provides an opportunity to fast play and give the ball a variety of strong rotation, as well as to reflect the ball. Since 1959, two-layer and hard racket, that is a racket without pads, officially considered the only option available for table tennis rackets.


New materials for rackets have significantly advance the development of means of table tennis. The most important role in this process was played by the invention of a new element - topspina. In 1961 at the World Championships Japanese, using rackets with pimples inside overlays (such overlays are also called "soft"), began to carry out forehand with a very strong top spin. Strongly hooked ball flies to the opponent a bit too slowly, but bouncing very quickly and unexpectedly out of the way. Without such training to take the ball is almost impossible. New blow, called "devil ball from Tokyo" or "topspin", was immediately seen worldwide. Although its inventors hold the racket grip "pen", it turned out that topspin especially convenient for Europeans, and not only the right, but the left. It topspin on the left represents now the main argument in a dispute with representatives of the European school players of Asian style. In the first row of tennis players moved owning this blow, - physical development, with strong muscles, moving, hardy. Thanks topspinu table tennis has become one of the most technically sophisticated sports comprehend the secrets which can only by intense prolonged exercise.


Topspin not only enriched the game forwards, but also made significantly change tactics players defensive style. To reflect topspiny trimming, should be able to just turn the ball powerfully in the opposite direction very quickly move around the court in a timely manner to move from defense to attack and vice versa. To neutralize superstrong rotating balls used lining type "antitopspin." Material for them is a hard rubber surface than normal smooth "sandwich" in its structure more loose, perforated. This racquet to defend well, but it is difficult to attack, as you have to put more effort. To be able to attack the defenders began to use different types lining. Imperceptibly changing racket in his hand by the parties, such players have to confound opponents, who had all the time to adapt to different rebound from different linings. By the same method was applied not only advocates, but also some of the attackers and players mixed style.


To put all competitors on an equal footing, the International Federation decided to change the color overlays racquets. Now on the International Regulations for one pad racket should be red, the other - black. If a player covers with different properties, you can see at what point used one or the other pad.


No matter how formidable topspin, it is only part of the wealth of this game techniques that convincingly demonstrate the Chinese athletes, the hallmark of style which is used not topspinov (though they own them perfectly), and fast, flat strokes designed to forestall rivals.


Chinese tennis players made their debut on the world stage in 1953. Soon, they were recognized as the best in the world, but the "cultural revolution" for a certain period ended their ascent. At this time, the world pedestal captured players, the main reception which was just topspin. Among the most famous names in Europe: Hungary I. Yonera, T. Klampara, G. Gergely; Swedes C. Johansson and S. Bengtsson; Yugoslavs Shurbeka D. and A. Stipanchicha. Back in 1971 on the world stage, Chinese athletes were forced to solve the problem of super-strong upper rotations. And they decided it originally. Nothing in principle without changing the game, the Chinese part of its many tennis players have trained the European manner, and thus, it has become customary for them. They experimented with overlays and were the original creators of the playing surface, which received a sports colloquially known as "grass". Pad is made of synthetic material, covered with long pimples, which give the ball bounces unexpected path.


But most importantly, the Chinese tennis players have become more elaborately develop and use his speed, while enriching their game all the new elements. With this ultra-fast game slow topspin opponent becomes an easy target for a strike, as well as deceptive movement.


Again becoming the strongest in the world in 1981, Chinese athletes continue to study hard all new, adopt any valuable experience in every way to promote research in this area.


In the Soviet Union on the development of table tennis has influenced the Chinese manner of playing and European school, and flavor it brought vast geography games in the USSR: a long tradition were the Baltic republics, the Caucasus, famous athletes grew up in the Ukraine, Byelorussia. Among Soviet tennis great success and achieved immense popularity Zoe Rudnova, Stanislav Gomozkov, Tatiana Ferdman, Valentina Popova. "Epidemic" ping-pong in Russia began with the St. Petersburg (then Leningrad), where he began to take the first competition and brought up the first champions.


Table tennis and still remains popular in Russia, Europe and other parts of the world. To this day, the athletes improve their playing techniques, preparing for a little competition, and major championships. Join this sport is not difficult and is never too late. And you can start right now, having become acquainted with the basics of playing technique.

According to the materials of the Internet.

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